Family Law: What are Void Marriages in the Philippines?

A void marriage is one which is NOT valid from its inception. A marriage that is void ab initio is considered as having never to have taken place and cannot be the source of rights (Niñal vs. Bayadog [2000]). The following marriages are void from the beginning:

  1. Those contracted by any party below 18 years of age EVEN with the consent of parents or guardians;

  2. Those solemnized by any person NOT legally authorized to perform marriages UNLESS such marriages were contracted with either or both parties believing in good faith that the Solemnizing Officer had the legal authority to do so;

  3. Those solemnized WITHOUT a Marriage License, EXCEPT marriages exempt from license requirement;

  4. Those bigamous or polygamous marriages, NOT allowed under special laws such as the Muslim Code or NOT contracted by a person whose spouse has been absent for 4 consecutive years, said person having a well-founded belief that the absent spouse was already dead and the latter is declared presumptively dead in a summary proceeding

  5. Those contracted through mistake of one contracting party as to the identity of the other;

  6. Those subsequent marriages that are void under Article 53 of the Family Code of the Philippines when either of the former spouses marries again WITHOUT complying with the requirements of Article 52, supra, requiring the judgment of annulment or judgment of absolute nullity of the marriage, the partition and distribution of the properties of the spouses, and the delivery of the children’s presumptive legitimes be recorded in the appropriate civil registry and registries of property;

  7. Those contracted by any party who, at the time of the celebration, was psychologically incapacitated to comply with the essential marital obligations of marriage EVEN IF such incapacity becomes manifest only after its solemnization;

  8. Those between ascendants and descendants of any degree;

  9. Those between brothers and sisters, whether of the full or half blood;

  10. Those between collateral blood relatives, whether legitimate or illegitimate, up to the 4th civil degree (i.e. between first cousins);

  11. Those between step-parents and step-children;

  12. Those between parents-in-law and children-in-law;

  13. Those between the adopting parent and the adopted child;

  14. Those between the surviving spouse of the adopting parent and the adopted child;

  15. Those between the surviving spouse of the adopted child and the adopter;

  16. Those between an adopted child and a legitimate child of the adopter;

  17. Those between adopted children of the same adopter; and

  18. Those between parties where one, with the intention to marry the other, killed the other person’s spouse or his or her own spouse (Articles 35, 36, 37, and 38, Family Code of the Philippines)

It Pays To Know | Juan Knows

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150 thoughts on “Family Law: What are Void Marriages in the Philippines?

  1. HELP NAMAN PO JUAN KNOWS..

    ADVICE LANG PO KUN ANO DAPAT GAWIN NG FAMILY NG MISIS KO REGARDING SA CLAIMS NG PENSION NG FATHER-IN-LAW KO.

    30 YEARS PO NAGSAMA MGA BIYENAN KO SA EDAD NA 62 NAMATAY PO YUN BIYENAN KONG LALAKI.. MAY REQTS PO ANG SSS NA CEMOMAR NUNG NAKUHA PO NAMIN NAG APPEAR NA MERON PONG SIYA UNANG ASAWA..
    7 years po pagitan ng marriage nila..
    Within 30yrs magkasama n po biyenan ko, no communication na po sila ng una niyang asawa..
    Gusto po nilang malaman kun mkiki claim po b ng biyenan ko pension nia?

    • Magandang araw! Base po sa inyong inilahad, ang biyenan ninyo ay nagsasama lamang at hindi ikinasal. Sa madaling sabi, nananatili siyang kasal sa kanyang unang asawa. Sa ganitong kaso, ayon sa Article 148 ng Family Code of the Philippines, tanging ang mga ari-arian lamang na naipundar ng nagsasama sa pamamagitan ng kanilang joint o magkasamang kontribusyon ng pera, ari-arian, o pagsisikap ang maituturing na pag-aari nila pareho sa proporsyon ng kani-kanilang kontribusyon. Kung gayon, kailangang patunayan ng inyong biyenan ang proporsyon ng kanyang kontribusyon/hulog sa nasabing pension. Otherwise, kung tanging ang kanyang yumaong kinakasama ang humulog dito, wala siyang habol dito at sa una at lehitimong asawa ito mapupunta.

      Mainam na hingin din ang opinyon ng SSS hinggil sa kanilang kaso.

    • Yes, as long as the minister had the authority to marry at the time of your marriage, or either or both of you, at the time of the celebration of the marriage, believed in good faith that he had such legal authority to do so.

  2. Hi Magandang Hapon po,

    Nais ko lang po sana alamin kung Void or Null po yong kasal ng kaibigan ko. Naikasal po kasi sila na hindi po sila nakaattend ng seminar.. Pero po silang dalawa 21 years old na that time…Hindi rin po alam ng kaibigan kong lalaki na ikakasal pala siya sa araw na iyon. Kasi wala naman po silang seminars na pinuntahan. at paano po na makaka apekto ung marriage license dito..

    • Magandang araw! Ang bisa ng inyong kasal base sa mga facts na inyong inilahad ay nakadepende kung meron nga bang Marriage License o wala sila noong mismong araw ng kasal. Kung dahil sa di pag-attend ng seminar ay walang-wala talagang Marriage License na inisyu ang Local Civil Registrar ng lugar kung saan sinuman sa ikinasal ay nakatira, ang kasal ay void ab initio. Kung meron, valid po ang kasal, kahit na di sinuman sa kanila ang naka-attend ng seminar.

  3. Hi sir ,Void po ba ang kasal kapag sila ay 1st cousin,kahit itrace talagang isa lang ang nanay ng mga tatay nila (though the 1st husband ay namatay at nagkaroon ng panibagong asawa at ang kanilang mga anak ay nag asawahan,iba ang kanilang mga apelyido at yan ang kanilang nirarason)

    • Magandang araw! Void ab initio po ang kasal sa pagitan ng first cousins. Ayon sa Article 37 ng Family Code of the Philippines, ang mga kasal sa pagitan ng sumusunod ay incestuous at void from the beginning, maging legitimate or illegitimate man ang relasyon sa pagitan ng ikakasal: (a) between ascendants and descendants OF ANY DEGREE; at (b) between brothers and sisters, maging full or half blood man sila. Sa inyong inilahad, di maikakailang pasok sa unang kaso ang mga ikinasal yamang sila ay first cousins, yamang din pareho ang lola nila at magkapatid ang tatay nila. Sila ay magkadugo bilang first cousins.

  4. HI Sir Juan Knows,?

    Greetings!

    I just like to ask if you have an idea or information about my concern pertaining to Marriage Contract. Unfortunately, my wife used a new signature during our Signing of Marriage Contract on the day of our Civil Wedding. To make it clear to you, my wife use a new signature which appears to be her Married Signature already that shows my surname. Do you have any idea if this may affect future references or if it will be considered null or void or whatever legal terms? I am just concern but also to make it clear there is nothing wrong with our Marriage as we have been IN LOVE towards each other and that we are into good condition too.

    Looking forward for your swift information then.

    Thanks.
    Dy [deleted]

    • Good day! Sorry for the late reply. The use of a new signature by your wife in the Marriage CONTRACT or Marriage Certificate will not affect the validity of your marriage. As far as Marriage CONTRACTS or Marriage Certificates are concerned, they are merely the best proof to show that a marriage was in fact solemnized between you and your wife. A Marriage Contract/Marriage Certificate is different from a Marriage LICENSE.

      However, in the future, as when you two decide to migrate or apply for foreign visa, there may be instances when your wife’s signature may be asked. To remedy such a case, I urge your wife to use one signature in all her official transactions from now on to prove that the signature and the person are one and the same.

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